Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Healers & Mesothelioma

General Information About Malignant Mesothelioma

The Key points for this Section

Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the chest or abdomen.

Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant(cancer) cells are found in the pleura - the thin layer that lines the chest cavity and covers lungs or the peritoneum (the thin layer of tissue that lines abdomen and covers most of the organs in the abdomen). This summary is about malignant mesothelioma of the pleura.
below diagrams hows anatomy of the respiratory system , showing the trachea and both lungs an their lobes and airways. Lymph nodes and the diaphragm are also shown. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and passes through the thin membranes of the alveoli and into the bloodstream 
                                                       PIC 

Being exposed to the asbestos an affect the risk of developing malignant mesothelioma.

Anything that increases your chances of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you not get cancer.
people who think they maybe at risk should discuss this with heir doctor.
Many people which malignant mesothelioma have worked or lived in places where they inhaled or swallowed asbestos.After being exposed to Asbestos, it usually long time for malignant mesothelioma to occur. Other risk factors for malignant mesothelioma include the following:
  • Living with person who works near Asbestos.
  • Being exposed to certain virus.

Possible signs of malignant mesothelioma include shortness of breath and pain under the rib cages.

Sometimes the cancer causes fluid to collect around the lung or in the abdomen. These symptoms may be caused by the fluid malignant mesothelioma. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur.
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Pain under the rib cage.
  • Pain or swelling in the abdomen.
  • Lumps in the Abdomen.
  • Weight loss for no known reason.

Test that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect and diagnose malignant mesothelioma

Sometimes it is hard to tell differences between malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. The following tests and procedures may be used.
  • Physical exam history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for the signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patients health habits, exposure to asbestos, past illness and treatments will also be taken.
  • Chest X-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest, An x-ray is type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
                                                               PIC
x-ray of the chest X rays are used to take pictures of organs and bones of the chest X-rays pass through the patient onto film.

CBC (Complete Blood Count) : A procedure in which sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:

  •    The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
  •    The amount of hemoglobin (The protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
  •   The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.

Sedimentation rate: A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the rate at which the red blood cells settle to the bottom of the test tube.

Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues from the pleura or peritoneum so they can be viewed under a microscope by pathologist to check for signs of cancer. Procedures used to collect the cells or tissues include the following:

  • Fine-needle(FNA) aspiration biopsy of the lung: The removal of tissue or fluid using thin needle. An imaging procedure is used to locate the abnormal tissue or fluid in the lung. A small incision may be made in the skin where the biopsy needle is inserted into the abnormal tissue or fluid , and sample is removed

  • Thoracoscopy: An incision made between two ribs and thoracoscope is inserted into the chest.
  • Peritoneoscopy An incision  is made in the abdominal wall and peritoneoscope is inserted into abdomen.

  • Laparotomy: An incision is made in the wall of the abdomen to check the inside of teh abdomen for signs of disease.

  • Thoracotomy: An incision is made between two ribs to check inside the chest for signs of disease.

Bronchoscopy: A procedure  to look inside the trachea and large airways in the lung for abnormal areas. A bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth into the trachea and lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.

Cytologic Exam : An exam of cells under a microscope(by a pathologist) to chek for anything abnormal. For mesothelioma, fluid taken from around kungs or from the abdomen. A pathologist checks the cells in the fluid.
Certain factors affect prognosis(chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following.
  • The stage of the cancer.
  • The size of the tumor.
  • Whether the tumor can be removed completely by surgery.
  • The amount of the fluid in the chest or abdomen.
  • The patient's age and general health, including lung and heart health.
  • The type of mesothelioma cancer cells and how they look under a microscope.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred.

Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

Keypoints for this section

After malignant mesothelioma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.
The process used to find out if cancer has spread outside the pleura or peritoneum is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the spread of the cancer in order to plan treatment, The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
  • Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
  • CT scan(CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of the chest and abdomen, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedures is also called tomogrophy, computerized tomography, or computerized axial  tomography.
  • MRI (magnetic resonate imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of the chest or abdomen. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (NMRI).
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes from picture of the body tissues called a sonogram. This procedure is also called endosonography. EUS may be used to guide fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the lung, lymph nodes, or other areas.
There are three ways cancer can spreads in the body.
The three ways cancer can spreads in the body
  • Through tissue, Cancer invades the surroundings normal tissue.
  • Through the lymph system, Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
  • Through the blood, Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
When cancer cells break away from the primary(original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form, This process called metstasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor in the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
The stages of malignant mesothelioma are divided into two groups.
Malignant mesothelioma stages are grouped into localized and advanced.
Localized malignNT MESOTHELIOMA (Stage I)
In localized malignant mesothelioma , cancer is found in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the lung, the lining of the diaphragm, or the lining of the sac that covers the heart on the same side of the chest.
Advanced malignant mesothelioma (stage II, stage III, and stage IV).
  • In stage II, cancer is found in the lining of the chest wall and the lymph nodes on the same side of the chest, Cancer may also be found in the lining of the lung, the lining of the diaphragm, or the lining of the sac that covers the heart on the same side of the chest.
  • In stage III, cancer has spread to any of the following areas:
  •  The chest wall.
  • The mediastinum.
  • The heart.
  • Beyond the diaphragm.
  • The peritoneum.
Cancer may have also . spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or outside the chest.
  • In stage IV, cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues.

Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma

Recurrent malignant Mesothelioma is cancer that has recurred after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the chest or abdomen o in other parts of the body.

Treatment Options Preview

Key points of this section
  • There are different types of treatment for patients with malignant mesothelioma.
  • Three types of standard treatment are used:
  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • new types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
  • Biological therapy.
  • Patient may want to think about taking part in clinical trial.
  • Patient can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
  • Follow-up tests may be needed.

There are different types of treatment for patients with malignant mesothelioma

Different types of treatments are available for patients with malignant mesothelioma. Some treatments are standard and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatment or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in clinical trial.. Some clinical tirals are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Three types of standard treatment are used:
Surgery
The following  surgical treatments may be used for malignant mesothelioma:
  • Wide local excision: Surgery to remove the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it.
  • Pleurectomy and decortication : surgery to remove part of the covering of the lungs and lining of the chest and part of the outside surface of the lungs.
  • Extra pleural pneumonectomy: Surgery to remove one whole lung and part of the lining of the chest, The diaphragm, and the lining of the sac around the heart.
  • Pleurodesis: A surgical procedure that uses chemicals of or drugs to make a scar in the space between the layers of the pleura. Fluid is first drained from the . space using a catheter or chest tube and the chemical or drug is put into the space. The scarring stops the build-up of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after surgery. to lower the risk that cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is cancer treatment that uses high energy beam x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systematic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed in those areas combination of chemotherapy is the use of more than one anti cancer drug. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI web site.

Biological Therapy

Biological therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer, This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Patients may want to think about taking part in clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients  who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in the clinical trials also help improve  the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments. they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There arealso clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials, These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials.
         

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